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Tashkent

Tashkent

Tashkent

HISTORY

 

Tashkent

Tashkent is the capital of Uzbekistan. After the 16th century the Tashkent’s name changed from “ Chach City” to “Tashkand” which as stone city meant more meaningful to the inhabitants than the old name. Hsien Tsang mentioned this city as Che- shih. Under the Samanid dyanasty it was called Binkath.

The city was destroyed by Genghis Khan in 1219, although the great conqueror had found that the Khorezmshah had already sacked the city in 1214. Under the Timurids and subsequent Shaybanid dynasties the city revived, despite occasional attacks by the Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Persians, Mongols, Oirats and Kalmyks. In 1809 with a population of 100,000 it was the richest city in Central Asia through trade with Russia.

In May 1865, General Mikhail Grigorevich Chernyayev (Cherniaev), acting against the direct orders of the tsar, and outnumbered at least 15-1 staged a daring night attack against a city with a wall 25 kilometers (16 mi) long with 11 gates and 30,000 defenders. While a small contingent staged a diversionary attack, the main force penetrated the walls, led by a Russian Orthodox priest armed only with a crucifix. Although defense was stiff, the Russians captured the city after two days of heavy fighting and the loss of only 25 dead as opposed to several thousand of the defenders (including Alimqul, the ruler of the Kokand Khanate). Chernyayev, dubbed the "Lion of Tashkent" by city elders, staged a "hearts-and-minds" campaign to win the population over. He abolished taxes for a year, rode unarmed through the streets and bazaars meeting common people, and appointed himself "Military Governor of Tashkent", recommending to Tsar Alexander II that the city be made an independent khanate under Russian protection.

The Tsar liberally rewarded Chernyayev and his men with medals and bonuses, but regarded the impulsive general as a "loose cannon", and soon replaced him with General Konstantin Petrovich Von Kaufman. Far from granting Tashkent its independence, Tashkent became the capital of the new territory of Russian Turkistan, with Kaufman as first Governor-General. A cantonment and Russian settlement were built across the Ankhor Canal from the old city, and Russian settlers and merchants poured in. Tashkent was a center of espionage in the Great Game rivalry between Russia and the United Kingdom over Central Asia. The Trans-Caspian Railway arrived in 1889, and the railway workers who built it settled in Tashkent as well, bringing with them the seeds of Bolshevik Revolution.

At the time of collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Tashkent was the 4th largest city and centre for learning science & engineering. Today it is a very soviet city and the most cosmopolitan city in Uzbekistan and Central Asia. In 2007 it was named the cultural capital of the Islamic world.


Samarkand

Samarkand

Samarkand today is the 2nd largest city in Uzbekistan. It is one of the oldest cities in the world prospering from its location on the trade route between China and Europe. It was conquered by Alexander the Great in 329 BC. The 1st paper mill in the islamic world was founded in Samarkand in 751. In 1370 Timur the Lame or Tamerlane decided to make Samarkand his capital which extended from India to Turkey. In 1499 Uzbekhs took control and moved their capital to Bukhara. It was abandoned after the assault of the persian King Nadir Shan and ruled by the Emirs of Bukhara from 1784. It came under the Russian rule in 1868 and became the capital of Uzbek SSR in 1925 before replacing by Tashkent in 1930.


Bukhara

Bukhara

Originally this city was founded in 500 BC. In 1500 BC a combination of factors; climatic drying, iron technology, and the arrival of Aryan nomads triggered a population shift to the oasis from outlying areas. Together both the Sapalli and Aryan people lived in villages along the shores of a dense lake and wetland area in the Zeravshan Fan (the Zeravshan River had ceased draining to the Oxus). By 1000 BC both groups had merged into a distinctive culture. Around 800 BC this new culture, called Sogdian, flourished in city-states along the Zeravshan Valley. By this time the lake had silted up and small three fortified settlements had been built. By 500 BC these settlements had grown together and Located on the Silk route this city has been the centre of trade, scholarship, culture and religion. It has been one of the main centres of Iranian civilization during its history. The origin of this inhabitants goes back to the period of Aryan immigration to India.

Bukhara entered the modern period as a colonial acquisition of the Russian Empire. The city was briefly independent during the communist revolution before finally being folded into the Soviet Union. Following the formation of the Soviet Union, the Tajiks, who were then part of the Uzbekistan province, pushed for independence. The Russians, who supported the Uzbeks over Tajiks, gave the traditionally and linguistically Iranic cities of Bukhara and Samarkand to Uzbekistan.

 

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TESTIMONIAL
Jakob
London

"We visited Uzbekistan with 365tours and were completely satisfied with the service 365tours offered in any regard, that is organisation before departure and during the trip. The hotels are first class, whenever possible in the local style, the driver proved very attentive and helpful and the guide was very competent and gave as a lot of information about history, economy etc. as well as happily answering all the questions we asked.

I therefore cannot only recommend a trip to Uzbekistan to everyone as one of the most beautiful countries among the one hundred I have visited, but also warmly recommend 365tours which did a perfect job. "

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