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HISTORY
Ho Chi Minh City

Ho Chi Minh City began as a small fishing village known as Prey Nokor. The area that the city now occupies was originally swampland, and was inhabited by Khmer people for centuries before the arrival of the Vietnamese. It should be noted that in Khmer folklore that Southern Vietnam was given to the Vietnamese government as a dowry for the marriage of a Vietnamese princess to a Khmer prince in order to stop constant invasions and pillaging of Khmer villages.

In 1623, King Chey Chettha II of Cambodia (1618-1628) allowed Vietnamese refugees fleeing the Trinh-Nguyen civil war in Vietnam to settle in the area of Prey Nokor, and to set up a custom house at Prey Nokor. Increasing waves of Vietnamese settlers, which the Cambodian kingdom, weakened because of war with Thailand, could not impede, slowly Vietnamized the area. In time, Prey Nokor became known as Saigon.

In 1698, Nguyen Huu Canh, a Vietnamese noble, was sent by the Nguyen rulers of Hu? to establish Vietnamese administrative structures in the area, thus detaching the area from Cambodia, which was not strong enough to intervene. He is often credited with the expansion of Saigon into a significant settlement. A large Vauban citadel called Gia Dinh was built, which was later destroyed by the French over the Battle of Chi Hoa.

Conquered by France in 1859, the city was influenced by the French during their colonial occupation of Vietnam, and a number of classical Western-style buildings in the city reflect this, so much so that Saigon was called "the Pearl of the Far East" (Hon ngoc Vien D Former Emperor Bao Dai made Saigon the capital of the State of Vietnam in 1950 with himself as head of state. After the Vietminh gained control of North Vietnam in 1955, the Saigon government was renamed the Republic of Vietnam, commonly referred to as South Vietnam. Saigon and Cholon, a adjacent city with many Sino-Vietnamese residents, were combined into an administrative unit called Do Thanh Sai Gon ("Capital City Saigon").

At the conclusion of the Vietnam War, on April 30, 1975, the city came under the control of the Vietnam People's Army. In the U.S. this event is commonly called the "Fall of Saigon," while the communist Socialist Republic of Vietnam call it the "Liberation of Saigon."

In 1976, upon the establishment of the unified communist Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the city of Saigon (including Cholon), the province of Gia Dinh and 2 suburban districts of two other nearby provinces were combined to create Ho Chi Minh City in honour of the late communist leader H? Chí Minh. The former name Saigon is still widely used by many Vietnamese, especially in informal contexts.[6]. Generally, the term Saigon refers only to the urban districts of H? Chí Minh City. The word "Saigon" can also be found on shop signs all over the country, even in Hanoi.


Hanoi

The area around modern Hanoi has been inhabited since at least 3000 BC. One of the first known permanent settlements is the Co Loa citadel founded around 200 BC.

Hanoi has had many names throughout history, all of them of Sino-Vietnamese origin. During the Chinese domination of Vietnam, it was known as Tong Bình and later Long Do. In 866, it was turned into a citadel and was named Dai La

In 1010, Ly Thai Tho the first ruler of the Ly Dynasty, moved the capital of Dai Viet to the site of the Dai La Citadel. Claiming to have seen a dragon ascending the Red River, he renamed it Thang Long a name still used poetically to this day. It remained the capital of Vietnam until 1397, when the capital was moved to Thanh Ho also known as Tay Do (Western Capital). Thang Long then became Dong Do ( Eastern Capital)

In 1408, Vietnam was invaded by Chinese troops from the Ming Dynasty and Ðông Ðô was renamed DongQuan (Eastern Gateway) by the Chinese. In 1428, Vietnam was liberated from Chinese rule by Le Loi the founder of the Le Dynasty and Ðông Quan was renamed Dong Kinh Eastern Capital - the name known to Europeans as Tonkin. The same characters are used for Tokyo, Japan). During the Tay Son Dynasty, it was named Bac Thah.

In 1802, when the Nguyen Dynasty was established and then moved the capital down to present-day Hue, it was renamed Thang Long ( "ascending dragon"). However, the second syllable of the toponym is actually a homonym of the word long, and so, actually suggests “to flourish” as opposed to “dragon”. Therefore, the name would then have appeared as roughly to ascend and flourish. In 1831 the Nguyen Dynasty renamed it Ha Noi can be translated as Between Rivers or River Interior) . Hanoi was occupied by the French in 1873 and passed to them ten years later. It became the capital of French Indochina after 1887.

The city was occupied by the Japanese in 1940, and liberated in 1945, when it became the seat of Vietnam's government. From 1946 to 1954, it was the scene of heavy fighting between the French and Viet Minh forces. At that point, the city became the capital of an independent North Vietnam.

During the Vietnam War Hanoi's transportation facilities were disrupted by the bombing of bridges and railways, which were, however, promptly repaired. Following the end of the war, Hanoi became the capital of Vietnam when North and South Vietnam were reunited on July 2, 1976.

On August 1, 2008, Hanoi absorbed the neighboring province of Ha Tay, Vinh Phuc's Me Linh district, and three communes from Luong Son, Hoa Binh, effectively tripling its size.

 

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Rakesh Sharma
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Vietnam

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Cu Chi Tunnel

Chineese Assembly Hall

Hanoi

Hanoi Market



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